Signals & Systems (EE-2613)

Probability and Random Variables (EE-2413)

Recommended Book(s)

Modern Digital And Analog Communication Systems by B. P. Lathi, Oxford University Press, 4th Edition

Reference Book(s)

Communication Systems Engineering by J. G. Proakis And M. Salehi


The basic objective of this course is to provide basic knowledge of major components of a communication system. It will help students understand the basics of signal and representation of signals by trigonometric Fourier series, signal transmission and analysis, Fourier transforms and their properties. It will enhance students’ knowledge about random noise processes. It will give them a detailed knowledge of modulation ad demodulation, analogue modulation techniques, carrier recovery schemes and phase-locked loops (PLLs). It will provide the knowledge of sampling theorem and reconstruction of signals. Also an introduction to information theory, source coding, channel capacity, and communication channel models shall be discussed.


CLO1: Analyze the periodic and non-periodic signals using trigonometric Fourier series and Fourier transforms respectively. (Level: C4)

CLO2: Analyze the behavior of amplitude and phase modulated signals both in time and frequency domain. (Level: C4)

CLO3: Design Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM) transmitter and receiver. (Level: C5)


Review of Signals and Systems

  • Introduction to communication systems, analog and digital messages, SNR, channel BW, modulation.
  • Introduction to signals, size of a signal, signals and vectors, signal representation, trigonometric Fourier series.
  • Analysis and transmission of signals, Fourier transform and its properties, energy and power spectral density.

Review of the theory of probability and Random processes

Baseband and Carrier Modulation

Amplitude Modulation

  • Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier Amplitude Modulation (DSB-SC-AM)
  • Conventional Amplitude Modulation (DSB-AM)
  • Single Sideband Amplitude Modulation (SSB-AM)
  • Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
  • Frequency Mixer/converter.
  • Demodulation of AM.
  • Types of Modulator and Demodulator.
    • Double Sideband (DSB)
    • Single Sideband (SSB)
    • Vestigial Sideband (VSB)
    • Carrier Acquisition.
    • Phase Locked Loop (PLL).
    • Composite Video Signal (Television Broadcasting)

Angular/Exponential Modulation

  • Bandwidth of Angle-Modulated Waves
  • Generation of FM Waves
  • Demodulation of FM
  • Interference in Angle-Modulated Systems
  • FM Receiver

Sampling and Reconstruction of Signals

Pulse Modulation

  • Pulse code modulation (PCM)
  • Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)
  • Pulse width modulation (PWM)
  • Pulse position modulation (PPM)

Miscellaneous Topics

  • Frequency bands and transmission media
  • Radio Systems
  • Measures of Information
  • Shannon’s Theorem
  • Channel Capacity Concept
  • Introduction to Source Coding
  • Variable Length Coding (Huffman Coding)

Information Theory






PLO:1 (Engineering Knowledge)

PLO:2 (Problem Analysis)



PLO:3 (Design and Development of Solutions)


PLO:4 (Investigation)

PLO:5 (Modern Tool Usage)

PLO:6 (The Engineer and Society)

PLO:7 (Environment and Sustainability)

PLO:8 (Ethics)

PLO:9 (Individual and Team Work)

PLO:10 (Communication)

PLO:11 (Project Management)

PLO:12 (Life Long Learning)