• To provide know-how to students to plan, design wastewater collection & treatment systems.
• To introduce the definitions


CLO: 1. to design waste water distribution network(s).
CLO: 2. to clarify issues regarding building drainage.
CLO: 3. to justify and defend recommendation of solid waste management and sewerage characteristic, treatment and its disposal according to national and international standards/practices.
CLO: 4. to analyze sewers distribution network(s) design by preparing MS Excel/ computer software.


  1. Standards (NEQS) and International Standards.
    • Sewer system (Types, shapes, size and materials of sewers, pipe strengths and tests)
    • Design, construction, laying and maintenance of sewage system
    • Separate & Combined systems
    • Sewer appurtenances
  2. Estimation of Sewage Quantities
    • Population characteristics
    • Population forecasting
    • Waste water generation
    • Rainfall intensity formulas, hydrograph & weather flow, sewage quantities
    • Variations and rates of flows
    • Velocity gradient & limiting velocities.
  3. Characteristics of Sewage
    • Sampling techniques and examination of wastewater (Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters) Biochemical Oxygen demand (BOD)
    • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
    • Microbiology of sewage
    • Effluent disposal guideline and standards
    • Pakistan National Environmental Quality
  4. Sewage Treatment and Disposal: Primary, secondary & tertiary treatment
    • Screening grit chamber, skimming tanks & sedimentation tanks
    • Activated sludge treatment, tricking filters
    • Rotating biological contactors
    • Aerobic systems, lagoons and oxidation ponds, etc.
  5. Sewage Disposal
    • Receiving body assimilation capacity
    • Stream pollution and self-recovery, sludge handling, treatment & disposal
    • Effluent re-use
  6. Building drainage
    • Soil pipes, anti-syphon pipes and waste water pipes
    • Sanitary fixtures and traps
    • House connection and testing of house drainage
    • Cross connection and back syphon age control
  7. Solid waste management
    • Types, characteristics, sources and quantities of solid waste
    • Collection, disposal (Landfill, incineration, RDF, waste to energy) and recycling
  8. Software applications