Primary objective of the course is to provide sound knowledge of biomolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and vitamins etc. Important concepts include bioenergetics, basic biochemical principals (metabolism, catabolism, anabolism etc.) and metabolic pathways inside the interacted/ regulated systems. Course outline is aimed to make students understand basic chemical properties of molecules that make life possible and how these properties regulates macromolecular structures and functions. How structural proteins, enzymes and macromolecular complexes forms the basis of cellular machinery inside the body.


CLO: 1. Define the metabolic role of certain tissues and metabolites in physiological and / or pathological processes.
CLO: 2. Explain the synthesis of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates and their role in metabolic pathways along with their implementation in regulatory mechanics.
CLO: 3. Role of metabolic pathways in body’s function in healthy and disease state. Assessment of healthy life style as well as general knowledge about molecular biology.


  1. METABOLIC FATE OF BIOMOLECULES (Anabolism and Catabolism):
    • _Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, Aerobic and anaerobic breakdown of Glucose, Glycolysis, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, Glycogenolysis, Glycogenesis, Gluconeogenesis, Citric acid cycle, Energetics of various metabolic processes_
    • _Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of lipids, Oxidation of fatty acids through β-oxidation, Biosynthesis of fatty acids, neutral lipids and cholesterol_
    • Proteins and Amino acids: Brief introduction to the digestion and absorption of proteins and amino acids, Metabolism of essential and non-essential amino acids, Biosynthesis and catabolism of Haemins and porphyrin compounds.
    • Principles of bioenergetics, Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation_
    • Role of Vitamins: Physiological role of Fat-soluble (A, D, E and K) and Water-soluble (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, Niacin, Pyridoxal phosphate, Biotin, Folic acid, Cyanocobalamin-members of B-complex family and Ascorbic acid), Coenzymes and their role in the regulation of metabolic processes.
    • Receptor mediated regulation (Hormones): Mechanism of action of hormones, Physiological roles of various hormones, Site of synthesis and target sites of hormones.
    • Secondary Messengers: Role of cAMP, Calcium ions and phosphoinositol in the regulation of metabolic processes.
    • Gene Expression: Replication, Transcription and Translation (Gene expression) Introduction to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Basic principles of Recombinant DNA technology, Pharmaceutical applications, Balance of Catabolic, Anabolic and Amphibolic processes in human metabolism, Acid-Base and Electrolyte Balance in Human body.
    • Introduction and importance of the clinical chemistry. Laboratory tests in diagnosis of diseases including Uric acid, Cholesterol, Billirubin and Creatinine