The main objective of this course is to summarize the working principles in the microbiology laboratory and distinguish main microbiological devices, use of microbial media and sterilization techniques, incubate the microorganisms where inoculated to medium, compare the morphological observation techniques of microorganisms and to debate the relations of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents, staining techniques, antibiotic susceptibility testing techniques, and isolation of antibiotics.


CLO: 1. To describe the basic microbiological laboratory approaches used for sterilization and staining techniques. (C1)
CLO: 2. To illustrate the study of microbiology of various bacteria from different sources, its detection and identification. (C2)
CLO: 3. To apply the different approaches of antibiotic susceptibility testing and antibiotics isolation from different sources. (C3)


  1. NOTE: Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the above-mentioned theoretical topics and availability of the facilities, e.g. Sterilization of glassware and pharmaceutical products by various methods. Microbiological assays of: Anti-biotics and vitamins. Preparation of general and selective media and culturing of microorganisms. Total and viable counts of microorganism. Morphological and selective biochemical characterization of some specimen. Staining of Bacteria: Gram method, Acid fast, Giemasas staining, Capsule staining, Flagella staining and Spore staining. Microbiological analysis of air, water and soil (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted)