The objective of this course is to provide the basic background of knowledge about drugs concerning the mechanisms of action. The course is also designed to train students about the use of laboratory animals in biomedical sciences to assist in doing experiments using laboratory animals in ways judged to be technically, scientifically and humanely suitable. Furthermore, the purpose is to identify unknown drug by performing experiment on live animals/isolated tissues.


CLO: 1. Understand background, principle and mechanism involved in the mediation of drug effects.
CLO: 2. Understand the principles of handling animals and relate the mechanism of action of with drug effects by doing experiments on live animals and animals’ tissues.
CLO: 3. Gather, analyze and interpret experimental data and compare the theoretical effects of the medications with lab experiments.


NOTE: Practical of the subject shall be designed from time to time on the basis of the theoretical topics and availability of the facilities e.g.

  1. Preparation of standard solution, Ringers’ solution, Tyrode solution, Kreb solution, Normal saline.
  2. To demonstrate the effects of sympathomimetic (Adrenaline) and sympatholytic drugs (Propranolol) on Frog’s heart.
  3. To demonstrate the effects of parasympathomimetic (Acetylcholine) and parasympatholytic (Atropine) drugs on Frog’s heart.
  4. To demonstrate the effects of an unknown drug on Frog’s heart. Routes of Administration of drugs.
  5. To demonstrate the effects of vasoconstrictor drugs on Frog’s blood vessels.
  6. To demonstrate the effects of stimulant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Acetyl choline, Barium chloride). To demonstrate the effects of depressant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Atropine).
  7. To differentiate the effects of an unknown drug on Rabbit’s intestine and identify the (unknown) drug. To study the effects of Adrenaline on Rabbit’s Eyes.
  8. To study the effects of Homatropine on Rabbit’s Eyes.
  9. To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Rabbit’s Eyes.
  10. To study the effects of Local Anaesthetic drug (e.g. Cocaine) on Rabbit’s Eyes.
  11. To identify the unknown drug & differentiate its effects on Rabbit’s Eyes.
  12. To demonstrate emetic effects of various drugs in pigeons

(Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).