CThis course is designed to provide the basic background of knowledge about drugs working through autonomic nervous and mechanisms of action involved. The course also trains students how to handle laboratory animals in biomedical sciences in ways judged to be technically, scientifically and humanely suitable and be able to observe appropriate safety measures to ensure safe working. This course enables to prepare accurately appropriate solutions of drugs, to administer required doses and to achieve required concentrations in in vivo and in vitro situations


CLO: 1. Understand background, principle and mechanism of action of drugs and enhance the ability to do literature review about certain topics
CLO: 2. Conduct pharmacological experiments on animals or animal tissue to examine the effects of drugs and deal with different pharmacological instruments.
CLO: 3. Interpret and analyze data obtained from experimental studies and compare the theoretical effects of the drugs with lab experiments


  1. Preparation of standard solution. Ringer solution. Tyrode solution. Kreb solution. Normal saline. To demonstrate the effects of sympathomimetic (Adrenaline) & sympatholytic drugs (Propranolol) on Frog’s heart.
  2. To demonstrate the effects of parasympathomimetic (Acetylcholine) and parasympatholytic
  3. (Atropine) drugs on Frog’s heart.
  4. To demonstrate the effects of an unknown drug on Frog’s heart.
  5. Routes of Administration of drugs.
  6. To demonstrate the effects of vasoconstrictor drugs on Frog’s blood vessels.
  7. To demonstrate the effects of stimulant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Acetyl choline, Barium chloride).
  8. To demonstrate the effects of depressant drugs on Rabbit’s intestine (Atropine).
  9. To differentiate the effects of an unknown drug on Rabbit’s intestine and identify the (unknown) drug.
  10. To study the effects of Adrenaline on Rabbit’s Eyes.
  11. To study the effects of Homatropine on Rabbit’s Eyes.
  12. To study the effects of Pilocarpine on Rabbit’s Eyes.

  13. To study the effects of Local Anaesthetic drug (e.g. Cocaine) on Rabbit’s Eyes.
  14. To identify the unknown drug & differentiate its effects on Rabbit’s Eyes (Note: A minimum of 10 practicals will be conducted).