• To enable students to learn fundamentals of hydraulic engineering, particularly related to open channel flow, flow through pipes, dam and river engineering.
  • To enhance the capabilities of students related to irrigation engineering and canal network.


CLO: 1. to analyze the state of flow in open channels by using the concept of specific energy and assess design parameters for cross drainage works.
CLO: 2. to design barrages for alluvial rivers and gravity driven irrigation system for earthen canals.
CLO: 3. to justify and defend his/her assigned design for a specific project of open channel.
CLO: 4. to perform and demonstrate solutions to various Hydraulic problems using MS Excel/ Computer programs


  1. Steady Flow in Open Channel
    • Specific energy and critical depth
    • Dynamic equation of gradually varied flow, surface profiles and back water curves
    • Humps and constrictions
    • Hydraulic jump
    • Broad crested weirs, venturi flume and critical depth meters
  2. Unsteady Flow
    • Flow through pipes, orifices and over weirs under varying heads
    • Unsteady flow through pipe lines, water hammer, instantaneous and slow closure of valves
    • Surges in open channel
  3. Dams and Hydro Power Engineering
    • Selection of hydropower sites
    • Components and layout of hydropower schemes
    • Types of storage dams, forces on dams, design of gravity dams
    • Reservoir engineering, operation and regulation of storage reservoirs
    • Sediment Transport in Channels
    • Sedimentation Problems in Reservoirs
  4. Canal Irrigation
    • Elementary concept about canal head works, selection of their site and layout, weirs and barrages, various components and functions
    • Measures adopted to control silt entry into canals, silt ejectors and excluders
    • Design of weirs on permeable foundations, sheet piles and cut off walls
    • Design of irrigation channels
    • Kennedy’s and Lacey’s Theories
    • Rational methods for design of irrigation channels
    • Comparison of various methods
  5. Barrages and Headworks
    • Canal head regulators, falls, flumes, canal outlets
    • Cross drainage works: types and functions
    • Canal lining: advantages and types
    • Maintenance of irrigation canals
    • Monitoring of flows-telemetry system
  6. Water logging and salinity
    • Causes and effects of water logging, reclamation of water logged soils
    • Drains and tube wells
    • Causes and effects of salinity and alkalinity of lands in Pakistan
    • Reclamation methods
    • Drainage network in irrigated areas
  7. Drainage
    • Definition, Land reclamation
    • Surface Drainage
    • Subsurface Drainage
    • Estimation of discharge capacity of Cross-drainage structures
    • Disposal of drainage effluents
  8. Design using Software
    • Computer aided design of irrigation channels