This course introduces students with the internal architecture, Assembly Language programming concepts and I/O interfaces of 8086 & 8088 microprocessors. Students will develop comprehensive understanding of the Intel x86 software programming model and instruction set. Course will focus on Intel x86 assembly programming techniques. Students will also learn 8086/8088 modes of operations, interfacing of memory and I/O devices, pipelining and Cache memory hierarchy.


CLO: 1. Describe the basics of computer architecture and I/O devices interfacing with emphasis on 8086/8088 processor architecture (Level: C1)
CLO: 2. Apply concepts related to computer memory hierarchy and organization, cache organization, pipelining and direct memory access (DMA) (Level: C3)
CLO: 3. Develop assembly programs in 8086/8088 Assembly Language and develop problem solutions in low-level programming (Level: C5)


  1. Introduction to Computer Architecture-Four Lectures
    • Computer Organization& Architecture
    • Number Systems Review
  2. 8086 & 8088 Microprocessors Software Architecture- Four Lectures
    • 8086/8088 internal Micro-architecture
    • Programming Model of 8086/8088 Microprocessors
    • Segment Registers , Data Registers & Status Register
    • Memory Address Space & Stack
  3. Assembly & Machine Language Programming- Four Lectures
    • High Level vs. Low Level Programming Paradigm
    • 8086/8088 Addressing Modes
  4. 8086/8088 Assembly Instruction Set- Four Lectures
    • Data Transfer Instructions
    • Arithmetic , Logical & Shift Instructions
    • Control Flow & Jump Instructions
    • Subroutines & Call Instruction
    • Loop & String Handling Instructions
  5. 8088/8086 I/O Interfaces and DMA- Four Lectures
    • Evolution of Intel Processors
    • 8086/8088 Control Signals & Bus Cycles
    • Memory organization &Memory Device Interfaces
    • Direct Memory Access (DMA)
  6. Pipelining- Four Lectures
    • Pipelining Overview
    • Pipeline Stages & Operation
    • Performance improvement with pipelining
  7. Memory Organization and Cache hierarchy- Six Lectures
    • Principal of Locality
    • Elements of Cache Design
    • Cache Types& Levels
  8. Peripheral Interfaces-Two Lectures
    • Serial & Parallel Communication Interface